How Glucagon and Insulin control blood sugar levels

How Glucagon and Insulin control blood sugar levels

Glucagon and Insulin provide continuous energy to your body and their proper balance control blood sugar levels. The hormones insulin and glucagon assist in controlling your body’s levels of blood glucose, or sugar. Your bloodstream transports glucose, which is derived from the consumed food and serves as part of the body’s fuel supply.

Insulin regulates whether sugar is converted into energy or is stored as glycogen. Cells are instructed by glucagon to release sugar from glycogen. Your levels of blood sugar are balanced by insulin and glucagon, which help to keep them within the level that your body needs.

How Glucagon and Insulin Interact

The interaction between glucagon and insulin is known as a negative loop. In order to maintain a steady blood sugar level, one event causes another, which causes another, and so on.

How Insulin Functions

Foods that contain carbs are transformed into glucose during digestion. The majority of this glucose is injected into your bloodstream, raising blood sugar levels in the process and informing your pancreas to start producing insulin.

Your body’s cells are instructed to absorb glucose from the bloodstream by insulin. The amount of glucose in your blood decreases when it enters your cells. Glucose is used as energy by some cells. Any extra glucose is stored as a compound called glycogen in other cells, including those in your muscles and liver, which is utilized as fuel in between meals.

How Glucagon Functions

Insulin’s effects are balanced by the activity of glucagon.

The blood glucose levels fall four to six hours after a meal. Your pancreas is then prompted to start producing glucagon.

This hormone tells your muscles and liver to turn the glycogen you’ve stored back into glucose. As a result, your bloodstream receives the glucose, which is then released by these cells for usage by other cells as fuel.

The Glucagon and Insulin cycle as a whole is continuously active. It ensures that your system has a continuous amount of energy by preventing too many low blood sugar spikes.

Glucose Conditions

The control of blood glucose by your body is a remarkable metabolic achievement. But for certain individuals, the procedure is defective. Blood sugar regulation issues may result from diabetes.

Diabetes is a collective term for several ailments. Your body uses Glucagon and Insulin improperly or produces too much glucagon if you suffer from the diabetes or prediabetes. High amounts of glucose in the blood might result from this system being out of balance.

Diabetes Type-1

Type-1 diabetes is the fewer persistent of the two primary forms. The cells in your pancreas that produce insulin are considered to be destroyed by your immune system in this autoimmune condition.

Your pancreas either does not create any insulin or not enough insulin if you suffer from type 1 diabetes. As a result, you need to take insulin daily to maintain healthy blood sugar levels and avoid long-term side effects like gum disease, nerve damage, and visual difficulties.

Diabetes Type-2

Even while your body produces insulin, type 2 diabetes impairs your cells’ ability to utilize it properly. Insulin resistance is the term used to describe this.

The inability of your cells to absorb your bloodstream glucose as effectively as they formerly could results in higher levels of blood sugar.

Your body may generate less insulin over time if you have type 2 diabetes, which could lead to higher blood sugar levels. Some people can control type 2 diabetes by diet and exercise. Others might require medicine or insulin to control their blood glucose levels.

Pregnancy Diabetes

It is also known as gestational diabetes. In certain cases, gestational diabetes appears between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy.

Hormones associated with pregnancy may affect insulin function in people with gestational diabetes. Often, this issue goes away once the pregnancy is over.

However, if you have diabetes during pregnancy, you may be more likely to acquire type 2 diabetes later in life.


Your body produces insulin in the case of prediabetes, but it is not adequately utilized. The levels of blood sugar could therefore rise, though not to the same extent as they would if you had diabetes type 2. Your likelihood of developing diabetes type 2 and other medical conditions can increase if you have prediabetes. The type 2 diabetes, however, can be prevented or delayed by altering your food and way of life.

Consult a medical professional

If you have any additional queries regarding insulin or glucagon, you might want to consult a healthcare provider. A doctor or nutritionist can recommend diet and lifestyle adjustments to adjust blood glucose in addition to assisting you in understanding how these hormones change blood sugar control.

You may have the following inquiries:

  • Is the amount of my blood sugar safe?
  • Am I pre-diabetic?
  • How can I prevent getting diabetes?
  • How can I determine whether I will have to take medications?